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    IV Introduction 静脉输液介绍
    日期:2018-05-10 09:29:37    来源:ISPN周老师
    Introduction to IVs
     
            IV stands for intravenous, or an injection that is given directly into the vein. We have a limit of 3 mL of fluid for adults when giving them subcutaneous or intramuscular injections because more than that will cause problems in the tissue surrounding the injection site, but because an IV injection goes directly into a patient's vein, the only limit on the amount of fluid that can be administered via an IV is the limit on the amount, a fluid a person's body can consume without receiving more liquid than the body can absorb or excrete (which can lead to medical problems such as heart failure, high blood pressure, and excessive fluid in the lungs). The safe range of daily fluid intake will vary based on the patient's condition, size and age, as several diseases such a heart failure, kidney failure, and diabetes, for example, can require that a patient limit their daily fluid intake. Limits on a patient's fluid intake should be indicated by the doctor based on a patient's condition, but for a normal healthy adult, the normal range of total fluid intake (coming from IV fluids and/or fluids that they drink) should be 35-50 mL/kg body weight/day. For example, a 100 kg healthy adult, should get 3500-5000 mL per day of fluid, or 3.5 to 5 L. This is a lot of fluid compared to the amount that we can give using other parenteral routes of administration.
           Because of this, IV administration is used when we want to give a large amount of fluid, or when we need to dilute a medication in a lot of fluid to make it the correct strength or prevent it from causing irritation. Also, because IV administration generally involves larger quantities of fluid, the medication given by IV is usually infused over a longer period of time, usually anywhere between 15 minutes and several hours. This is obviously different from subcutaneous or intramuscular injection, as these two methods involve injecting the entire medication dosage instantaneously.
            Also, IV administration is faster than any other method of administation because it goes directly into the blood, so it may be used when rapid action of the drug is necessary.
    1. Basic IV Setup
            Let's take a look at the most basic possible setup for an IV:






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