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    ISPN总复习 文化多样性与健康执业 Cultural Diversity and Health
    日期:2014-10-06 10:22:13    来源:奥医教育
    Cultural Diversity and Health Practices
    文化多样性与健康执业
     
     
    关键词:文化 多样性 价值观 信仰 宗教 敏感性 饮食喜好 角色
     
    对应章节:Saunders Chapter 6
     
    Contents 本章目录
          I.非洲裔美国人 African Americans
          II. 阿米什派 Amish
          III. 亚裔美国人 Asian Americans
          IV. 西班牙与拉丁裔美国人 Hispanic And Latino Americans
          V. 土著美国人 Native Americans
          VI. 白种美国人 White Americans
          VII. 临终护理 End-Of-Life Care
          VIII. 补充和替代医学Complementary and Alternative Medicine
          IX. 草药疗法Herbal Therapies
          X. 低风险疗法 Low-Risk Therapies
     
    Focus  本章要点:
          Cultural diversity is an integral component of both health and illness because of genetic characteristics and the cultural values and beliefs we learn in our families and communities. To be able to provide culturally competent care to people from diverse backgrounds, nurses must be sensitive to culturally diverse needs, characteristics, and values of individuals, families, and groups and respect their religious and spiritual influences on health (Box 1)
          由于遗传特征及家庭、社区文化价值观和信仰的影响,文化多样性成为健康和疾病不可分割的组成部分。为了给不同文化背景的人们提供适合其文化背景的优质护理,护士必须具有对个体、家庭、群体不同文化需求、特点和价值观的敏感性,重视宗教、精神对健康的影响力(表1)。
          In this chapter, nurses are required to be aware of the values and beliefs of people of different backgrounds regarding health and illness and become familiar with their practices in health care. Also, concepts regarding health and illness relating to cultural diversity are presented and explained in this chapter for the convenience of nurses preparation for NCLEX-RN exam.
          本章要求护士了解不同文化背景个体的健康和疾病价值观与信仰,熟悉他们的医疗保健习惯。同时,本章还对不同文化的健康、疾病概念进行了描述和说明,以便护士更好地复习考试。
     
    *********************************************************
     
      
    Respecting religious and spiritual influences on health (Box 1)
    重视宗教、精神对健康的影响力(表1)
     
    Box 1 Religions and Dietary Preferences   表1 宗教信仰及饮食喜好
    Seventh Day Adventist (Church of God)
    基督复临安息日教会(上帝教会)
    Alcohol and caffeinated beverages are usually prohibited.    通常禁止酒精、咖啡因类饮料
    Many are lacto-ovovegetarians; those who eat meat avoid pork.   
    很多人为乳蛋素食者;吃肉者不吃猪肉
    Overeating is prohibited; 5 to 6 hours between meals without snacking is practiced.
      禁止进食过量;进餐相隔5-6小时,不吃点心
    Buddhism  佛教
    Alcohol is usually prohibited.    通常禁酒
    Many are lacto-ovovegetarians.
    很多人为乳蛋素食者
    Some eat fish, and some avoid only beef.
      有些吃鱼,有些只戒牛肉
    Roman Catholicism    罗马天主教
    They avoid meat on Ash Wednesday and Fridays of Lent.     大斋首日、星期五禁肉
    They practice optional fasting during Lent season.
      大斋期期间选择性禁食
    Children, pregnant women, and ill individuals are exempt from fasting.  儿童、孕妇、病人不禁食
    Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints(Mormon)
    耶稣基督后期圣徒教会(摩尔门教会)
    Alcohol, coffee, and tea are usually prohibited.
      通常禁酒、咖啡和茶
    Consumption of meat is limited.    限制肉类
    The first Sunday of the month is optional for fasting.
      每月第一个星期日为选择性斋戒日
    Hinduism  印度教
    Many are vegetarians; those who eat meat do not eat beef or pork.
      很多人为素食者;吃肉者不吃牛肉或猪肉
    Fasting rituals vary.    斋戒不尽相同
    Children are not allowed to participate in fasting,
      不允许儿童斋戒
    Islam    伊斯兰教
    Pork, birds of prey, alcohol, and any meat product not ritually slaughtered are prohibited.
      禁食猪肉、食肉禽、酒及不经仪式屠宰的肉制品
    During the month of Ramadan, fasting occurs during the daytime.     斋月期间,白天斋戒
    Jehovah's Witness   耶和华见证会
    Any foods to which blood has been added are prohibited.
      禁食带血食物
    They can eat animal flesh that has been drained.
      可食用已经放血的动物肉
    Judaism   犹太教
    Orthodox believers need to adhere to dietary kosher laws:
      正统教徒须遵守犹太人饮食戒律
    Meats allowed include animals that are vegetable eaters, cloven-hoofed animals, and animals that are ritually slaughtered.
    允许食用的肉类包括草食类动物、偶蹄类动物及经仪式屠宰的动物
    Fish that have scales and fins are allowed.
    允许食用有鳞、鳍的鱼类
    Any combination of meat and milk is prohibited.
    禁食肉牛奶混合制品
    During Yom Kippur 24-hour fasting is observed.
      犹太人赎罪日期间,24小时斋戒
    Pregnant women and seriously ill individuals are exempt from fasting.    孕妇和重病患者不禁食
    During Passover, only unleavened bread is eaten.
      逾越节期间只吃未经发酵的面包
    Pentecostal (Assembly of God)
    五旬节宗(神召会)
    Alcohol is usually prohibited.    通常禁酒
    Members avoid consumption of anything to which blood has been added.
      教徒避免食用任何带血的东西
    Some individuals avoid pork.  有些教徒不吃猪肉
    Eastern Orthodox  东正教
    During Lent, all animal products, including dairy products, are forbidden.
      大斋期禁食所有动物制品,包括乳制品
    Fasting occurs during Advent.   降临节斋戒
    Exceptions from fasting include illness and pregnancy.
      免斋者包括病人和孕妇
     





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