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    ISPN总复习 实验室值 Laboratory Values
    日期:2014-10-13 23:29:37    来源:奥医教育
    Laboratory Values
    实验室值
     
    关键词:实验室 试验 检验 检查 血液成分 单位 标本 采集 电解质 凝血检查 红细胞 验尿 HIV AIDS 肝炎 蛋白质 酶
     
    对应章节:Saunders Chapter 11
     
    Contents  本章目录
            I.电解质 Electrolyte
            II.凝血检查 Coagulation Studies
            III.红细胞检查 Erythrocyte Studies
            IV.血清酶与心肌标记物 Serum Enzymes and Cardiac Markers
            V.胃肠道血清学检查 Serum Gastrointestinal Studies
            VI.葡萄糖检查 Glucose Studies
            VII.肾功能检查 Renal Function Studies
            VIII.元素 Elements
            IX.甲状腺检查 Thyroid Studies
            X.白血细胞计数 White Blood Cell Count
            XI.人免疫缺陷病毒(HIV)与获得性免疫缺陷综合征(AIDS)试验 HIV and AIDS Testing
            XIII. 尿检验Urine Tests
            XIV. 治疗性血清药物浓度Therapeutic Serum Medication Levels
     
     
    Focus  本章要点:
    This chapter identifies the normal adult values for the most common laboratory tests. It is important to remember that normal laboratory values may vary slightly, depending on the laboratory setting and equipment used in testing. If you are familiar with the normal values, you will be able to determine whether an abnormality exists when a laboratory value is presented in a question. The questions on the NCLEX-RN examination related to laboratory values will require you to identify whether the laboratory value is normal or abnormal, and then you are required to think critically about the effects of the laboratory value in terms of the client.
    本章明确了最常用实验室试验的成人正常化验值。必须记住,由于实验环境及所用仪器的不同,实验室正常值也会略有不同。如果你熟悉这些正常值,碰到实验室值题目时,你就能够确定是否存在异常。NCLEX-RN考试实验室值相关题目将先要求你确认实验室值是正常还是异常,接着要求你从患者角度,评判性思考这些实验室值的影响。
    This chapter focuses on knowledge of the normal values for the most common laboratory tests, therapeutic serum medication levels of commonly prescribed medications, and determination of the need to implement specific actions based on the findings. When a question is presented on the NCLEX-RN examination regarding a specific laboratory value, note the disorder presented in the question and the associated body organ affected as a result of the disorder. This process will assist you in determining the correct answer. For example, if the question asks about the immune status of a client receiving chemotherapy, assessment of laboratory values will focus on the white blood cell (WBC) count and the neutrophils. You will need to analyze these results as possibly being low and determine the specific client need, which in this case would be the risk for infection. In the client receiving chemotherapy who has a low WBC count, your plan centers on the immune system and protecting the client from infection. Implementation focuses on preventive interventions related to infection, perhaps protective isolation measures. Evaluation may focus on maintenance of a normal temperature in the client. FIGURE 1 lists the approximate values for the components of blood in a normal adult. Box 1 lists some of the common abbreviations found in laboratory values. The Priority Nursing Actions box lists the steps needed for obtaining a blood sample.
    本章重点是最常用实验室正常值知识、常用处方药的治疗性血药浓度及根据实验室结果确定是否需要采取具体行动。NCLEX-RN考试题目提出具体实体室值题目时,要特别注意该题所提供的疾病情况及该疾病所累及的相关身体器官。这一过程将帮助你确定正确答案。例如,题目询问一化疗患者的免疫状况,实验室值评估的重点就是白细胞计数(WBC)与中性的细胞。你就要分析,其实验室值可能较低,确定具体的患者需要,对本题而言,也就是感染危险。对于WBC计数较低的化疗患者,护士的护理计划应重点放在免疫系统及保护患者不受感染上。实施重点应是与感染相关的预防性措施,包括保护性隔离。评价重点则是患者正常体温的维持。图1列出了正常成人血液成分约值。表1列出了实验室值中的常用缩略语。优先护理行动列出了血液样本的采集步骤。
     
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