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    ISPN总复习 给药与静脉输液
    日期:2015-03-23 16:14:52    来源:奥医教育
    Administration of Medication and Intravenous Solutions
    给药与静脉输液
     
    关键词:给药 静脉输液 处方 剂量 计量 换算 摄氏 华氏 标签 给药途径 注射 口服
     
    对应章节:Saunders Chapter 17
     
    Contents  本章目录
    I.给药 Medication Administration
    II.药物计量系统 Drug Measurement System
    III.换算 Conversions
    IV.摄氏和华氏体温 Celsius and Fahrenheit Temperature
    V.药品标签 Medication Labels
    VI.用药处方Medication Prescriptions
    VII.口服药 Oral Medications
    VIII.胃肠外药物 Parenteral Medications
    IX.粉剂型可注射药物 Injectable medications in Powered Form
    X.正确药量的计算 Calculating the Correct Dosages
    XI.溶液百分比和溶液比率 Percentage and Ratio Solutions
    XII.静脉流速 Intravenous Flow Rates
    XIII.如何计算按每小时单位剂量开的处方 Calculation of Infusions Ordered By Unit Dosage Per Hour
     
     
    Focus  本章要点:
    When a medication or intravenous calculation question is presented, a nurse should always use the appropriate formula to solve the problem. The nurse should not use shortcuts to make these calculations. The problem and answer should be expressed in the correct units of measure. Be careful with decimal points. Correct placement of the decimal point is important or the answer will be incorrect. When solving a medication calculation problem, the nurse determines whether the answer is within reason (Do the patient’s condition, symptoms, and health status warrant receiving this medication) and makes sense (Does it make sense for the patient to have this medication). In the clinical setting, the nurse should always seek assistance if unsure of the accuracy of a calculation.
    碰到药物或静脉输液计算题时,护士应始终用适当的公式解题。计算时不走捷径。问题和答案应用正确的单位来表达。要小心小数点。小数点正确很重要,否则答案会错。在解答药物计算题时,护士应先确定答案是否合理并有意义。在临床环境中,若对计算正确性不敢确定,应始终寻求协助。
    On the NCLEX-RN examination, the fill-in-the-blank questions may require that you calculate a medication dose or an intravenous (IV) flow rate. You will be provided with a computer on-screen calculator for these medication and IV problems. Even if you use the calculator to calculate dosages and flow rates, you need to check the calculation before selecting an option or typing the answer. Follow the formula, place the decimal point in the correct place, and check the accuracy of the calculation. Remember that practice makes perfect.
    在注册护士考试中,填空题要求计算的是某种药物的剂量或静脉输液流速,计算这些药物或静脉输液题时,通常会给你提供一个屏幕计算器。即使你是用计算器计算剂量和流速,你也必须在选择答案或输入答案前先检查计算结果。按照公式,将小数点点在正确位置,检查计算正确性。记住:熟能生巧!
     
    特别声明:
    1、药品等词有一词多名者,一般情况下只取一常用名称,以减少混乱,方便记忆。
    2、本站词汇等凡标示【奥】者系奥医所用名称,只为方便读者学习时记忆用,并非法定或行业标准名称,因此,读者不得将其作为专业术语或行业标准用语使用,也不得用于临床或研究,否则,由此引起的一切责任或后果,均由使用者自己承担。
     
     
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    IMEDICATION ADMINISTRATION (Box -1)给药
     
    Box-1 Medication Administration -1 给药
    Assess the medication prescription.
    评估药物处方
    Compare the client's medication prescription with all the medications that the client was previously taking (medication reconciliation).
    对患者用药处方与此前患者正在服用的所有药物进行比较(药物一致)
    Ask the client about a history of allergies.
    询问患者过敏史。
    Assess the client's current condition and the purpose for the medication or intravenous solution.
    评估患者当前病情及用药或静脉输液目的。
    Determine the client's understanding regarding the purpose of the prescribed medication or need for intravenous solution.
    确定患者对处方用药目的或静脉输液需要的理解情况。
    Teach the client about the medication and about self administration at home.
    对患者进行用药及居家自我用药教育。
    Identify and address concerns (social, cultural, religious) that the client may have about taking the medication.
    确认并处理患者的用药担心问题(社会、文化、宗教)
    Assess the need for conversion when preparing a dose of medication for administration to the client.
    准备药物剂量时,评估是否需要换算。
    Assess the six rights of medication administration: right medication, right dose, right client, right route, right time, and right documentation.
    评估用药“六对”:对药、对剂量、对病人、对途径、对时间及对记录。
    Assess the vital signs, check significant laboratory results, and identify any potential interactions (food or medication interactions) before administering medication, when appropriate.
    必要时,在给药前评估生命体征,检查重要实验结果,确认任何可能的相互作用(食物或药物相互作用)。
    Document the administration of the prescribed therapy and client's response to the therapy.
    记录预先准备好的疗法的实施及患者对治疗的反应。
     




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