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MT 16 Provision of a Safe Environment
日期:2018-06-05 13:22:18    
NCLEX-RN Review – Medical Terminology
Chapter 16
Provision of a Safe Environment
Part A. Prefix and Suffix前缀及后缀
ante- -- prefix. (在)前 meaning “prior to, earlier, in front of, before” in time or position: antenatal 出生前的,anteroom 前房,接待室
antero- -- prefix. 在前A combining form meaning anterior, front: antero-posterior前后的,antero-lateral 前外侧的,antero-septal (房室)隔前的
entero-, enter- -- pref. 肠,肠道(Anatomy) indicating an intestine (enterovirus; enteritis).
epi-, ep- -- prefix 上,旁,表prefix meaning “on, above, close to, in addition to”: epidermis 表皮;epicardium 心外膜,epicondyle 上踝
infra- -- prefix 下 prefix meaning “inferior to, below, beneath”: infrarenal 肾下的;infraplacement向下移位
noct-, nyct- -- prefix, 夜meaning night: nocturnal
-penia – suff. 不足,减少suffix meaning a "(specified) deficiency" (glycopenia, lipopenia, thyropenia).
pri- -- prefix 周围,周prefix meaning “about, around, near, enclosing”: pericardium心包;perioperative围手术期的;periodontitis牙周炎
post- – prefix 后,在…后a prefix meaning “after, behind” in time or sequence: postorbital 眶后的; postpartum 产后的;postterm 过期的
pre- -- prefix, 在…前,前a prefix meaning “before” or “in advance” in time, rank, order, position, etc.: preadaptation 前适应,预先适应;precardium心前区;precostal 胸骨前的
pro- -- prefix, 前,以前,前体物,亲prefix meaning “before, prior to, in front of, in favor of”: prodrome 前驱症状;prospective 前瞻性的;procephalic 头前部的;pro-Chinese 亲中的
-proof – suff. 防…的secure against (damage by); (make) impervious to (waterproof; mothproof; childproof).
sub- -- prefix 下,分支prefix meaning “situated under or beneath, secondary in rank, forming a subdivision”: subception下意识,subaxillary腋下的;subcommittee小组委员会
supra- -- prefix. 上 prefix meaning “above, beyond the limits of, over, on top of, greater than”: suprarenal 肾脏上的;supramolecular 超分子的;
-us, -um – suff. 名词后缀suffix which creates a noun (indicates the presence of), usually identifying singular nouns: echolalus (模仿言语者), thalamus (丘脑), tonus (紧张,肌肉的强直性).
Part B. Vocabulary and Expressions 词汇及表达
abrasion -- n. 表面磨损,磨耗. the wearing away of a substance or structure, such as the skin or teeth, through some unusual or abnormal process; a wound caused by rubbing or scraping the skin or a mucous membrane; a “skinned knee” and a “floor burn” are common examples.
accommodation -- n. 招待设备,调解,顺应adjustment, especially adjustment of the eye for seeing objects at various distances; the state or process of adapting or adjusting one thing or set of things to another; the continuous process or effort of the individual to adapt or adjust to surroundings to maintain a state of homeostasis, both physiologically and psychologically; (in sociology) the reciprocal reconciliation of conflicts between individuals or groups concerning habits and customs, usually through a process of compromise, arbitration, or negotiation; (pl.) room and board; lodgings.
activate -- vt.  激活,使活化To set in motion; make active or more active; to organize or create (a military unit, for example); (chemistry) to accelerate a reaction in, as by heat.
adenovirus -- n.腺病毒科any of a large group of viruses causing disease of the upper respiratory tract and conjunctiva, and also present in latent infections in normal persons; many induce malignancy in certain species.
airborne -- a. 空气播散的suspended in, transported by, or spread by air. In health care settings, viruses or bacteria may become airborne, e.g., when someone sneezes or coughs.
alveolus -- n. 肺泡,胞室,腺泡A small angular cavity or pit, such as a honeycomb cell; a tiny, thin-walled, capillary-rich sac in the lungs where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place, also called air sac.
Ambu bag -- 人工呼吸机,急救袋Ambu bag, the proprietary name for a bag valve mask (abbreviated to BVM, which is sometimes known by the or generically as a manual resuscitator or "self-inflating bag"), is a hand-held device commonly used to provide positive pressure ventilation to patients who are not breathing or not breathing adequately.
ambulatory -- a. 不卧床的,能走动的Walking or able to walk; not confined to bed; of a condition or procedure, not requiring admission to a hospital for an overnight stay.
anthrax -- n. 炭疽an infection caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis that primarily affects livestock but that can occasionally spread to humans, affecting either the skin, intestines, or lungs. In humans, the infection can often be treated, but it is almost always fatal in animals.
antidote -- n. 解毒药. A remedy or other agent used to neutralize or counteract the effects of a poison; an agent that relieves or counteracts (jogging as an antidote to nervous tension).
antitoxin -- n. 抗毒素a particular kind of antibody produced in the body in response to the presence of a toxin
aureus – a. 金色 golden
autonomic reflex -- 自主反射 Any of a large number of normal reflexes governing and regulating the functions of the viscera. Autonomic reflexes control such activities of the body as blood pressure, heart rate, peristalsis, sweating, and urination.

bacillus -- n. 芽孢杆菌属a genus of aerobic or facultatively anaerobic, spore-forming rods, most of which are gram-positive and motile.
bacillus anthracis -- n. 炭疽芽孢杆菌a bacterial species that causes anthrax in humans, cattle, swine, sheep, rabbits, guinea pigs, and mice; contains virulence plasmids associated with capsule and toxin production.
badge -- n. 徽章,标志a distinguishing emblem (标志), device, or mark worn to signify membership, employment, achievement, etc.; any revealing feature or mark
barrier protection -- 屏障防护A physical obstacle protecting the health care provider from contact with potentially infective fluids from a patient such as blood, mucus, or saliva.
bedridden -- a. 卧病不起,卧床不起的Confined to bed because of illness or infirmity.
bent – n. a. 弯曲Personal inclination, propensity, or aptitude; capacity of endurance (esp. in the phrase to the top of one's bent); not straight; curved
bleach – v. n. 漂白(剂) 1. To remove the color from, as by means of chemical agents or sunlight (Over time, the exposure to sunlight bleached the rug in front of the window). 2. A chemical agent used for bleaching.
botulinum -- n. 肉毒菌毒素An anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium (Clostridium botulinum) that secretes botulin and inhabits soils.
bow knot – 滑结,缩帆结,蝴蝶结A knot commonly used for tying shoelaces and bow ties. The knot is a doubly slipped reef knot formed by joining the ends of whatever is being tied with a half hitch, folding each of the exposed ends into a loop (bight) and joining the loops with a second half hitch.

brittle -- a. 脆性的,易碎的Likely to break, snap, or crack, as when subjected to pressure (brittle bones); easily damaged or disrupted; fragile (a brittle friendship).
bubo – n. 腹股沟腺炎;鱼口疔,横痃a tender, enlarged, and inflamed lymph node, particularly in the axilla or groin, resulting from absorption of infective material and occurring in various diseases, such as lymphogranuloma venereum (性病淋巴肉芽肿), plague, syphilis, gonorrhea, chancroid (软下疳), and tuberculosis.
bubonic -- a. 横痃的,腹股沟淋巴结炎的characterized by or pertaining to buboes
call bell -- 唤人铃,叫人铃A call bell is used in hotels or other such facilities where people need to call attention to the person in charge to check them in, take their bags, of for any other reasons. In hospitals, if a client presses the button on the call bell, there is a sound and the bed number is shown on the display in the nurse station, so the nurse in charge can come to the bed and see what care the client may need.
chemical restraint – 化学约束a form of medical restraint in which a drug is used to restrict the freedom or movement of a patient or in some cases to sedate a patient. These are used in emergency, acute, and psychiatric settings to control unruly patients who are interfering with their care or who are otherwise harmful to themselves or others in their vicinity.
Cipro -- n. 盐酸环丙沙星制剂A trademark for the drug ciprofloxacin.
ciprofloxacin -- n. 环丙沙星a broad-spectrum antibiotic used against Gram-negative bacteria. It is effective against anthrax
circuit -- n. 回路,电路,巡行,环行A closed, usually circular line that goes around an object or area; the region enclosed by such a line; a closed path followed or capable of being followed by an electric current.
clostridium -- n. 梭菌属a genus of gram-positive, obligate anaerobic or microaerophilic, spore-forming, rod-shaped bacteria.
clutter -- n. 杂乱,干扰A confused or disordered state or collection; a jumble
cohort -- n. 队列,同层人a group of subjects with a common defining characteristic—typically age group
colonization -- n. 定居,集中护理,移生The formation of compact population groups of the same type of microorganism, such as the colonies that develop when a bacterial cell begins reproducing; the care of certain people, for example, patients with Hansen disease, patients with mental illness, in community groups.
confine -- vt. n. 边缘,范围,限制To keep within bounds; restrict (Please confine your remarks to the issues at hand); to shut or keep in, especially to imprison.
conjunctivitis -- n. 结膜炎an inflammation or redness of the lining of the white part of the eye and the underside of the eyelid (conjunctiva) that can be caused by infection, allergic reaction, or physical agents like infrared or ultraviolet light
contagious -- a.  接触传染的communicable or transmissible by contact with the sick or their fresh secretions or excretions.
cutaneous diphtheria -- 皮(肤)白喉a "punched-out" shallow ulcer sometimes bordered or followed by a bulla, resulting from infection of the skin by Corynebacterium diphtheria (白喉杆菌); systemic manifestations are the same as those of pharyngeal diphtheria.
deer fly -- 斑虻A biting fly that transmits the causative organism of tularemia (deer fly fever)
deer fly fever  -- 鹿蝇热
delayed transmission -- 传播延缓
discard -- v. n. 丢弃,清除to get rid of as useless or undesirable; a person or thing that has been cast aside
disinfectant -- n. a. 消毒剂1. An agent, such as heat, radiation, or a chemical, that is applied to inanimate objects to destroy, neutralize, or inhibit the growth of disease-carrying microorganisms. 2. serving as a disinfectant.
dispenser -- n. 自动售货机,容器a container, device, or vending machine for holding and dispensing small amounts, as of facial tissue, paper cups, or candy.
disseminated -- a. 散布的Spread over a large area of a body, tissue, or organ.
dormant -- a. 休眠的,不活动的Present but not active or manifest though capable of becoming so (a harrowing experience which ... lay dormant but still menacing); being in a condition of biological rest or inactivity characterized by cessation of growth or development and the suspension of many metabolic processes (a dormant bud; a dormant bacterium).
dosimeter -- n. 放射量计,剂量仪an instrument used to detect and measure exposure to radiation.
doxycycline -- n. 多西环素a tetracycline antibiotic used to treat conditions caused by a wide range of bacteria, including anthrax
droop – v. 下垂To bend or hang downward (His mouth drooped sadly, pulled down, no doubt, by the plump weight of his jowls); to let bend or hang down (He drooped his body over the rail).
drooping eyelid -- n. 睑下垂Abnormal lowering of the eyelid.
droplet -- n. 飞沫,微滴A small drop, such as a particle of moisture discharged from the mouth during coughing, sneezing, or speaking; these may transmit infections while airborne to others.
Ebola – n. 埃勃拉病毒(Ebola virus)A filovirus that causes disease in humans and nonhuman primates and spreads through contact with bodily fluids of infected people and animals. Bats are thought to be the host reservoir for the virus. Also called Ebola virus. Ebola virus disease (EVD) is previously known as Ebola hemorrhagic fever, caused by infection with a virus of the family Filoviridae, genus Ebolavirus (由纤丝病毒科埃博拉病毒属病毒感染引起).
encapsulated -- a. 包入胶囊的,被囊的Enclosed in a capsule or sheath; enclosed by a protective coating or membrane (an encapsulated bacterium包囊细菌).
enterococcus -- n. 肠球菌(Physiology) any of several streptococcus species present in the intestine
epiglottitis -- n. 会厌炎an infection of the epiglottis, which can lead to severe airway obstruction.
ergonomic -- a. 人类环境改造学的(Psychology) of or relating to ergonomics; designed to minimize physical effort and discomfort, and hence maximize efficiency: ergonomic principle  工效学原则
ergonomics -- n. 人类环境改造学 (used with a sing. verb) The applied science of equipment design, as for the workplace, intended to maximize productivity by reducing operator fatigue and discomfort. Also called biotechnology, human engineering, human factors engineering.
excretion -- n. 排泄物,排泄作用. The removal of the waste products of cell metabolism; the removal of feces, urine, and other wastes from the body via the colon, kidneys, lungs, or skin.
extinguish -- vt. 熄灭,扑灭,消灭To cause (a fire or light) to stop burning or shining; put out; to put an end to or make extinct; destroy ("Her death extinguished the dream of family that was closest to his heart".
extinguisher -- n. 灭火器. Any of various portable mechanical devices for spraying and extinguishing a fire with chemicals.
evacuate – v. 撤离,疏散,排除To withdraw or depart from; vacate (The coastal areas were evacuated before the hurricane made landfall); to withdraw or send away (troops or inhabitants) from a threatened area (The Coast Guard helped evacuate the citizens after the flood).
evacuation -- n. 撤退,后送. The act of evacuating or the condition of being evacuated; (Physiology) discharge of waste materials from the excretory passages of the body, especially from the bowels.
expose -- vt. 暴露To subject or allow to be subjected to an action, influence, or condition (exposed themselves to disease; exposed their children to classical music); to make visible (Cleaning exposed the grain of the wood); to make known (something discreditable); to reveal the guilt or wrongdoing of (expose a criminal).
face shield -- 护面罩A mask, typically made of clear plastic, that protects the mucous membranes of the eyes, nose, and mouth during patient-care procedures and activities that carry the risk of generating splashes of blood, body fluids, excretions, or secretions.

fatality -- n. 死亡,死亡率A death resulting from an accident or disaster
film badge -- 胶片剂量仪,照射量测定软片A photographic film packet to be carried by personnel, in the form of a badge, for measuring and permanently recording (usually) gamma-ray dosage.
fire alarm -- 火警警报器,火警钟A device, such as a siren (汽笛), used in announcing the outbreak of a fire; the signal, especially the noise, produced by such a device.
fire exit -- 火警出口A special kind of emergency exit, usually mounted to the outside of a building or occasionally inside but separate from the main areas of the building. It provides a method of escape in the event of a fire or other emergency that makes the stairwells inside a building inaccessible.
flammable -- a. 可燃的Easily ignited and capable of burning rapidly.
flammable liquid -- 可燃液体,易燃液体
flea -- n. 跳蚤,蚤a small, wingless, bloodsucking insect. Many fleas are ectoparasites and may act as disease carriers; they act as vectors of such diseases as plague, tularemia, and brucellosis.
foodborne – a. 食源性Referring to that which is carried by food, either pathogens—viruses (HAV), bacteria (e.g., salmonellosis), parasites (e.g., anisakiasis)—toxins (e.g., botulinum, aflatoxin B1) or chemicals (e.g., lead, organophosphates)
foodborne botulism -- 食源性肉毒中毒
Francisella -- n. 弗朗西丝菌属a genus of gram-negative, aerobic, coccoid or rod-shaped bacteria; F. tularensis (formerly called Pasteurella tularensis) is the etiologic agent of tularemia.
fray -- vt. 磨损,磨破To wear away (the edges of fabric, for example) by rubbing; to become worn away or tattered along the edges.
genitourinary – a. 生殖泌尿的pertaining to the urinary system and genitalia; called also urinogenital and urogenital.
gentamicin -- n. 庆大霉素A broad spectrum antibiotic of the aminoglycoside (氨基葡糖苷) class, obtained from Micromonospora purpurea (紫红小单孢菌) and M. echinospora, which inhibits the growth of both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria; the sulfate salt is used medicinally.
germicide -- n. 杀菌剂A substance or agent that kills germs, especially pathogenic microorganisms; a disinfectant.
grease – n. 油脂状物,脂肪,润滑脂Soft or melted animal fat, especially after rendering; a thick oil or viscous substance, especially when used as a lubricant.
half-bow knot – 半缩帆结
health care-associated (nosocomial) infections – 医疗保健相关(院内)感染Infections acquired in the hospital or other health care facility that were not present or incubating at the time of the client's admission; also referred to as hospital-acquired infections (医源性感染).
hemoptysis -- n. [医]咳血,咯血the coughing up of blood or bloody sputum from the lungs or airway. It may be either self-limiting or recurrent.
HEPA -- high-efficiency particulate air 高效分子空气originally called high-efficiency particulate absorber but also sometimes called high-efficiency particulate arresting or high-efficiency particulate arrestance, HEAP is a type of air filter
herpes -- n. 疱疹any inflammatory skin disease caused by a herpesvirus and characterized by formation of small vesicles in clusters. When used alone the term may refer to either herpes simplex or herpes zoster.
home safety – 家庭安全Removing items from the home environment and avoiding situations or events that place the client at risk for accident or injury.
immobilize -- vt. 使不动,使固定,使不能移动to make immobile or immovable; fix in place; to prevent the use, activity, or movement of; to prevent, restrict, or reduce normal movement in (the body, a limb, or a joint), as by a splint, cast, or prescribed bed rest.
impetigo -- n. 小脓疱疹A contagious skin infection, usually of children, that is caused by staphylococcal or streptococcal bacteria and is marked by superficial pustules and thick yellow crusts, commonly on the face.
incontinence -- n. 失禁 The inability to control urination or defecation. Urinary incontinence may be caused by physiological, psychological, or pathological factors. Treatment depends on the diagnosed cause. Fecal incontinence may result from relaxation of the anal sphincter or disorders of the central nervous system or spinal cord and may be treated by a program of bowel training. A Bradford frame (布莱德福氏架) with an opening for a bedpan or urinal may be used for bedridden incontinent patients.
incontinent -- adj.
incubate -- vi. vt. 孵化,培养,(病菌)潜伏To sit on (eggs) to provide heat, so as to promote embryonic development and the hatching of young; to be infected with (a pathogen) before manifesting signs or symptoms of an infectious disease; (microbiology) (intr) (of disease germs) to remain inactive in an animal or human before causing disease
ionize -- vt. 致电离,离子化To convert or be converted totally or partially into ions.
ionizing radiation -- 电离辐射any radiation, as a stream of alpha particles or x-rays, that produces ionization as it passes through a medium.
irradiation -- n. 照射The exposure of a substance to radiation, which consists of any of numerous kinds of rays that travel at the speed of light.
Junin – n. 【奥】胡宁病毒(Junin virus) a single-stranded RNA virus of the genus Arenavirus (species Junin virus) that is the causative agent of a hemorrhagic fever endemic in agricultural regions of Argentina and that is transmitted to humans chiefly by rodents (especially genus Calomys)
Lassa – n. 【奥】拉沙病毒(Lassa fever virus) viral hemorrhagic illness, often fatal, caused by an arenavirus.
lead apron -- 铅围裙used for radiation protection to shield people from x-ray or gamma rays and high density rays as well.
leak-proof -- a. 防漏的,密封的not allowing the escape or entry of liquid or gas
leucopenia – n. 白细胞减少Any condition in which the number of leukocytes in the circulating blood is lower than normal, the lower limit of which is generally regarded as 4000-5000/mm3
linen -- n. 亚麻织物Thread made from fibers of the flax plant; cloth woven from this thread. (pl.) articles or garments, such as sheets, tablecloths, or underwear, formerly made of linen and now usually made of other fabrics, especially cotton.
lye -- n. 碱液an alkaline percolate (滤液) from wood ashes; household lye is a crude mixture of sodium hydroxide with some sodium carbonate.
Marburg -- n. 【奥】马尔堡病毒(Marburg virus)  Marburg disease - characterized by a prominent rash and hemorrhages in many organs; often fatal.
meningococcal -- a. 脑膜炎球菌的of or relating to the meningococcus bacterium
meningococcus – n. 脑膜炎球菌a microorganism of the species Neisseria meningitidis, the cause of some types of meningitis.
mnemonic -- a. 记忆的 n. 助记符Relating to, assisting, or intended to assist the memory; a device, such as a formula or rhyme, used as an aid in remembering.
mount -- vt. vi.安装,放置To go up, climb, ascend on; to fix on or in a support, backing, setting, etc. (mount a photograph).
MRSA -- methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-- 抗甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌A strain of S. aureus resistant to methicillin. MRSA is resistant to all penicillins. Patients with MRSA infections should be isolated; appropriate mask-gown-glove precautions must be used, depending on the site of the infection. MRSA is an important cause of health care associated infections. Handwashing is essential in caring for patients who harbor this organism.
multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) -- 多种耐药结核Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli that are resistant to therapy with at least two standard antitubercular drugs (esp. isoniazid and rifampin, the two drugs that have formed the cornerstone of therapy for tuberculosis). MDR-TB must be treated with at least three antitubercular drugs to which the organism is presumed or proven to be sensitive.
multiply -- vt. 乘,增加To increase the amount, number, or degree of.
mustard gas – n. 芥子气An oily, volatile liquid that is corrosive to the skin and mucous membranes and causes severe, sometimes fatal respiratory damage. It was introduced in World War I as a chemical warfare agent.
mycoplasma – n. 支原体a genus of highly pleomorphic, gram-negative, aerobic or facultatively anaerobic bacteria that lack cell walls.
mycoplasmal -- a. 支原体的of, pertaining to, or caused by Mycoplasma.
needle sticks -- 针刺伤wounds caused by needles that accidentally puncture the skin
negative pressure – 负压pressure less than that of the atmosphere.
nerve gas -- n. 神经瓦斯,神经毒气(Pharmacology) (esp. in chemical warfare) any of various poisonous gases that have a potentially fatal paralysing effect on the central nervous system
neurovascular -- a. 神经血管的,神经脉管的(Medicine) of, relating to, or affecting both the nerves and the blood vessels
nocturia -- n.  夜尿Excessive urination at night. It may be a symptom of cardiac, renal, or prostatic disease or bladder outlet obstruction. The condition may also occur in people who drink excessive amounts of fluids, particularly alcohol or coffee, before bedtime or in older patients who have excess body fluids that are mobilized by lying down. Also called nycturia.
nonintact -- a. 非完整的,受损的not injured
nosocomial -- a. 医院的(Medicine) med originating in hospital: nosocomial disease; (of infections) contracted in a hospital or other health care facility.
obstacle -- n. 障碍物Something that stands in the way of or holds up progress (The road crew removed the obstacle of the fallen tree limb. We had to overcome many obstacles to put on this show).
open space -- 旷地,又称“开放空间”。An area preserved for use in emergency such as for people to stay when there is a fire.
organism -- n. 生物体,有机体Any living individual, whether plant or animal, considered as a whole.
outlet -- n. 排出口,引出线,电源插座A passage for escape or exit; a vent; a means of release or gratification, as for energies, drives, or desires (exercised as an outlet for frustration).
papule -- n. 丘疹, 长疮a small circumscribed, superficial, solid elevation of the skin with a diameter less than 1 cm (0.5 cm according to some authorities).
paralysis – n. 麻痹,瘫痪complete loss of strength in an affected limb or muscle group. Paralysis may affect an individual muscle, but it usually affects an entire body region. The distribution of weakness is an important clue to the location of the nerve damage that is causing the paralysis. Words describing the distribution of paralysis use the suffix "-plegia," from the Greek word for "stroke." The types of paralysis are classified by region:
monoplegia, affecting only one limb
diplegia, affecting the same body region on both sides of the body (both arms, for example, or both sides of the face)
hemiplegia, affecting one side of the body
paraplegia, affecting both legs and the trunk
quadriplegia, affecting all four limbs and the trunk
paralytic -- a. 麻痹的,瘫痪的pertaining to paralysis; a person affected with paralysis.
particulate -- n. 微粒  a. 微粒的1. A minute separate particle, as of a granular substance or powder. 2. Composed of separate particles; relating to or occurring in the form of fine particles; formed elements, discrete bodies, as contrasted with the surrounding liquid or semiliquid material (e.g., granules or mitochondria in cells).
parvovirus -- n. 细小病毒属Any of a family of very small DNA viruses that cause various diseases in animals, including feline panleukopenia (猫传染性粒细胞缺乏症), canine parvovirus (犬细小病毒), and fifth disease (第五病,传染性红斑) in humans.
Parvovirus B19 -- 细小病毒B19. B19 virus is most known for causing disease in the pediatric population; however, it can also affect adults. It is the classic cause of the childhood rash called fifth disease or erythema infectiosum (传染性红斑), or "slapped cheek syndrome."
pediculosis -- n. 虱咬症the state of being infested with lice; infestation with lice (see louse). Lice live on the host's blood, obtained by piercing the skin and sucking the blood through the mouth part. The area bitten itches and may become sore and infected from scratching.
perceptible -- a. 可认知的,可知觉的,可感觉的Capable of being perceived by the senses or the mind (perceptible sounds in the night); (especially of a slight movement or change of state) able to be seen or noticed (a perceptible decline in public confidence).
petroleum -- n.  石油a thick natural oil obtained from beneath the earth. It consists of a mixture of various hydrocarbons of the paraffin and olefin series.
pharyngeal -- a. 咽头的Of, relating to, located in, or coming from the pharynx.
phosgene -- n. 光气A colorless gas, COCl2, having an odor similar to mown or moldy hay, used as a poison gas and in making resins, plastics, and dyes.
physical activity -- 体力活动,体育活动Athletic, recreational or occupational activities that require physical skills and utilize strength, power, endurance, speed, flexibility, range of motion or agility; any body movement produced by muscles that results in energy expenditure.
physical hazard -- 物理损害A physical hazard is an agent, factor or circumstance that can cause harm with or without contact. They can be classified as type of occupational hazard or environmental hazard. Physical hazards include ergonomic hazards, radiation, heat and cold stress, vibration hazards, and noise hazards.
physical restraint – 物理约束,身体约束any device, material or equipment attached or adjacent to an individual’s body that he/she cannot easily remove, thus immobilizes or reduces the ability of the individual to move his/her body parts freely and/or to have normal access to his/her own body
plague -- n. 鼠疫a serious, potentially life-threatening infectious disease that is usually transmitted to humans by the bites of rodent fleas. It was one of the scourges of early human history. There are three major forms of the disease: bubonic, septicemic, and pneumonic.
pneumonic -- a. 肺的,肺炎的pertaining to pneumonia; pulmonary.
poison – n. 毒物Any substance that impairs health or destroys life when ingested, inhaled, or otherwise absorbed by the body.
poison control center -- 中毒控制中心a medical facility that is able to provide immediate, free, and expert treatment advice and assistance over the telephone in case of exposure to poisonous or hazardous substances. Poison control centers answer questions about potential poisons in addition to providing treatment management advice about household products, medicines, pesticides, plants, bites and stings, food poisoning, and fumes.
precaution -- n. 预防(措施)An action taken to avoid a dangerous or undesirable event; caution practised beforehand
PRN -- (Pro Re Nata) 必要时(in prescriptions) abbreviation for pro re nata, meaning as the situation demands, whenever needed.
prong -- n. 叉,管脚  vt. (用叉)戳入A thin, pointed, projecting part (a pitchfork with four prongs); a branch; a fork (the two prongs of a river). tr. v. To pierce with or as if with a thin, pointed, projecting part.
purpura -- n. 紫癜a hemorrhagic disease characterized by extravasation of blood into the tissues, under the skin, and through the mucous membranes, and producing spontaneous bruises, ecchymoses, and petechiae (small hemorrhagic spots) on the skin. When accompanied by a decrease in the circulating platelets, it is called thrombocytopenic purpura; when there is no decrease in the platelet count, it is called nonthrombocytopenic purpura.
pustular -- a. 脓疱的pertaining to or of the nature of a pustule; consisting of pustules.
pustule – n. 脓疱 a small, elevated, circumscribed, pus-containing lesion of the skin.
quick release -- 快速释放A feature of some headsets that allows the user to easily disconnect and reconnect the headset from the amplifier base unit. It is typically a snap-in connector located on the headset's cord (quick release knot 快松结,quick release tie 快松带,quick release buckle快松扣).

Quick release knot 快松结
rabbit fever -- 兔热病
radiation exposure -- 射线照射Exposure to intense ionizing radiation, usually occurring as the result of an accidental spill of radioactive material. Acute exposure of the whole body to approximately 10,000 rad (100 gray) causes neurological and cardiovascular breakdown and is fatal within 24 hours. A dose between 500 and 1200 rad (5 and 12 gray) destroys GI mucosa, produces bloody diarrhea, and may cause death in several days. A dose of 200 to 500 rad (2 to 5 gray) destroys the blood-forming organs and may cause death in a few weeks.
radiation safety -- 辐射安全The protection of people from harmful effects of exposure to ionizing radiation, and the means for achieving this.
radioactive material -- 放射性物质
recap -- vt. 给…重新加盖To replace a cap or caplike covering on (recapped the bottle).
reprocess         -- v. 再加工To cause to undergo special or additional processing before reuse.
respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) -- 呼吸道合胞病毒any of a genus of single-stranded paramyxoviruses; the name is derived from the type of disease produced (respiratory infection) and the microscopic appearance of the viruses in cell cultures. RSV can cause a wide variety of respiratory disorders ranging from a mild cold to serious or even fatal disease of the lung in the very young and very old. It regularly produces an outbreak of infection each winter and virtually disappears in the summer months. The most severe infections in children are in the very young, especially those who are preterm, immunologically compromised, or suffering from a congenital heart defect or preexisting lung disorder.
restraint (safety devices) – n. 约束,限制Physical devices (that the client is unable to remove) applied to restrict a client's movement are known as physical restraints(身体/物理限制). Medications given to inhibit a specific behavior or movement are known as chemical restraints(化学限制).
resuscitation -- n. 复苏术Restoration to life or consciousness of one apparently dead, or whose respirations had ceased; see also artificial respiration; (in the nursing interventions classification)  a nursing intervention defined as administering emergency measures to sustain life, to administer prescribed intravenous fluids rapidly, or to improve placental perfusion or correct fetal acid-base status (fluid resuscitation -- the correction of fluid volume imbalances, especially in patients with burn injuries; mouth-to-mouth resuscitation -- a method of artificial respiration in which the rescuer covers the patient's mouth with his own and exhales vigorously, inflating the patient's lungs.
reversibility -- n. 可反转性,可逆性,可回溯性the quality of being reversible in either direction
rodent -- n. 啮齿类动物(如鼠等) an order of mammals characterized by large chisel-shaped incisors, including the rats, mice, and squirrels, many of which are reservoirs for infectious diseases.
rub -- n. vt. vi. 摩擦To apply pressure and friction to (a surface); to clean, polish, or manipulate by the application of pressure and friction; to apply to a surface firmly and with friction: rub lotion on the hands; rub dye into the fabric.
safety knot – 安全结

sarin -- n. 沙林,a highly toxic synthetic organophosphorus compound; a colorless, odorless liquid, it is used as a chemical weapon due to its extreme potency as a nerve agent.
scabies -- n. 疥疮;疥螨病a relatively contagious infection caused by a tiny mite (螨) (Sarcoptes scabiei).
secretion -- n. 分泌物,分泌作用The process of releasing a substance, especially one that is not a waste, from the blood or cells: secretion of hormones; secretion of milk by the mammary glands; a substance, such as saliva, mucus, tears, bile, or a hormone, that is secreted.
septicemic -- a.  败血病的Relating to, suffering from, or resulting from septicemia.
sharps injuries -- 锐器刺伤a penetrating stab wound from a needle, scalpel, or other sharp object that may result in exposure to blood or other body fluids. Sharps injuries are typically the result of using dangerous equipment in a fast-paced, stressful, and understaffed environment.
sharp instrument 尖锐器械
shielding -- n. 屏蔽,遮蔽,保护罩Material of suitable thickness and physical characteristics used to protect personnel from radiation during the manufacture, handling, and transportation of fissionable and radioactive materials; obstructions which tend to protect personnel or materials from the effects of a nuclear explosion; the act of shielding from harm
simplex -- a. 单纯的 Consisting of or marked by only one part or element.
slack -- a. 余宽,松弛的Not tense or taut; loose (a slack rope; slack muscle); lacking in activity, not busy (a slack season for the travel business); moving slowly, sluggish (a slack pace); lacking in diligence or due care or concern, negligent (a slack worker).
smallpox -- n. 天花an infection caused by the variola virus, a member of the poxvirus family. Throughout history, smallpox has been a greatly feared disease because it was responsible for huge epidemics worldwide that resulted in large numbers of deaths.
soil -- vt. vi. n. 弄脏,变脏,污损1. The top layer of the earth's surface in which plants can grow, consisting of rock and mineral particles mixed with decayed organic matter and having the capability of retaining water. 2. To make dirty, particularly on the surface; to disgrace (a reputation soiled by scandal).
splash -- n. 飞浅的水,污点  v. 溅湿,溅开To propel or scatter (a fluid) about in flying masses; to scatter fluid onto (a surface) in flying masses; wet, stain, or soil with flying fluid. The act or sound of splashing (went for a splash in the lake; heard the splash of the fish being thrown back).
spore -- n. 芽孢,孢子a refractile, oval body formed within bacteria, especially Bacillus and Clostridium, which is regarded as a resting stage during the life history of the cell, and is characterized by its resistance to environmental changes.
spray -- n. vt. 喷雾器,喷雾1. Water or other liquid moving in a mass of dispersed droplets, as from a wave; a moving mass of particles or projectiles: a spray of bullets; a fine jet of liquid discharged from a pressurized container; a pressurized container; an atomizer. 2. To disperse (a liquid, for example) in a mass or jet of droplets, particles, or small pieces; to apply a spray to (a surface); hit with a spray.
standard precautions – 标准预防Guidelines used by all health care providers for all clients to reduce the risk of infection for clients and caregivers.
staphylococcus – n. 葡萄球菌属A genus of gram-positive bacteria made up of spherical microorganisms, tending to occur in grapelike clusters; they are constantly present on the skin and in the upper respiratory tract and are the most common cause of localized suppurating infections. Pathogenic species include S. aureus, S. epidermidis, and S. saprophyticus.
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus)        -- 金黄色葡萄球菌a common species found especially on nasal mucous membrane and skin (hair follicles); bacterial species that produces exotoxins including those that cause toxic shock syndrome, with resulting skin rash, and renal, hepatic, and central nervous system disease, and an enterotoxin associated with food poisoning; it causes furunculosis (疖病), cellulitis, pyemia (脓血症), pneumonia, osteomyelitis, endocarditis, suppuration of wounds, other infections; also a cause of infection in burn patients; humans are the chief reservoir.
strap -- n. 皮带,条带A long narrow strip of pliant material such as leather; such a strip equipped with a buckle or similar fastener for binding or securing objects; a thin flat metal or plastic band used for fastening or clamping objects together or into position.
streptomycin -- n. 链霉素An antibiotic agent obtained from Streptomyces griseus that is active against the tubercle bacillus and a large number of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria
stridor -- n. 喘鸣a term used to describe noisy breathing in general, and to refer specifically to a high-pitched crowing sound associated with croup, respiratory infection, and airway obstruction.
syncytial -- a. 多核体的,合胞体的of or pertaining to a syncytium.
syncytium – n. 多核体,合胞体A multinucleated protoplasmic mass formed by the secondary union of originally separate cells.
tar -- n. 焦油A dark, oily, viscous material, consisting mainly of hydrocarbons, produced by the destructive distillation of organic substances such as wood, coal, or peat; a solid residue of tobacco smoke containing byproducts of combustion.
tick -- n. 扁虱,蜱a blood-sucking parasitic arachnid; there are two types, hard and soft. Hard ticks (family Ixodidae) have a smooth, hard cover that shields the entire back of the male but only the anterior portion of the back in the female. Soft ticks (family Argasidae) lack this shield.
toddler -- n. 初学走路的孩子a young child, usually one between the ages of one and two and a half
transmission-based precautions – 传染相关预防Guidelines used in addition to standard precautions for specific syndromes that are highly suggestive of infections until a diagnosis is confirmed.
tularemia -- n. 土拉菌病An infectious disease caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis (土拉热弗朗西丝菌) that chiefly affects rodents but can also be transmitted to humans through the bite of various insects or contact with infected animals. In humans, the disease is characterized by intermittent fever and swelling of the lymph nodes. Also called rabbit fever.
Tularensis -- n. 弗朗西斯氏菌屬中的一种
uncap -- v. 脱掉帽子,打开盖to remove a cap or covering from (uncap a bottle, uncap a pen)
undercooked -- a. 未煮熟的Cooked for less than the recommended time; not fully developed
upholster – v. 以帘幕、地毯、等装饰to provide (chairs, sofas, etc.) with coverings, cushions, stuffing, springs, etc.
upholstery -- n. 室内装饰品,室内装饰业Fabric, stuffing, and other materials used in upholstering.
vancomycin -- n. 万古霉素(Pharmacology) an antibiotic effective against most Gram-positive organisms. It is given by intravenous infusions for serious infections that are resistant to other antibiotics
vesicle -- n. 膜泡,小水泡a small bladder or sac containing liquid; a small circumscribed elevation of the epidermis containing a serous fluid; a small blister
vicinity -- n. 附近,邻近The state of being near in space or relationship; proximity (two restaurants in close vicinity); a nearby, surrounding, or adjoining region; a neighborhood; an approximate degree or amount (houses priced in the vicinity of $200,000).
virulence -- n. 恶意,毒性the degree of pathogenicity of a microorganism as indicated by case fatality rates and/or its ability to invade the tissues of the host; the competence of any infectious agent to produce pathologic effects.
virulent -- a. 恶性的,剧毒的,有毒力的(A disease or toxin) Characterized by, causing, or promoting the rapid onset of severe illness; (A pathogen) capable of causing disease by aggressively interfering with the immune system of the host.
vomitus-- n. 呕吐物Matter that has been vomited; (physiology) the act of vomiting
warfare agent – 战剂Biological or chemical substance that can cause mass destruction or fatality.
working order -- 操作规程,正常运转状态the condition of a mechanism, system, etc., when functioning properly.
wound botulism -- 伤口型肉毒中毒
yersinia pestis – n. 鼠疫(耶尔森氏)杆菌a bacterial species causing plague in humans, rodents, and many other mammalian species and transmitted from rat to rat and from rat to humans by the rat flea; it is the type species of the genus Yersinia.


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