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    ​《今日美国护士》总第11.12期
    日期:2017-01-17 09:02:02    来源:ISPN 周老师
    《今日美国护士》2016年12月总第11卷第12期
    American Nurse Today
    December 2016 Vol. 11 No. 12
     
    Continuing Education
    Pediatric otitis media: To treat or not to treat with antibiotics
    小儿中耳炎:用还是不用抗生素治疗?
    A bacterial or viral infection of the middle ear, acute otitis media (AOM) is the most common childhood infection in the United States for which antibiotics are prescribed. It’s also the leading reason for pediatric healthcare visits, accounting for nearly 30 million outpatient visits. Many children experience recurrent AOM.
     
    Leading the Way
    Internal agency nurses provide an integrated, centralized staffing solution
    内部代理护士提供整体的集中编制方案
    Use of various just-in-time staffing solutions (unit PRN staff, facility float pool, overtime, per diem agency, and travelers) to meet patient care needs creates a struggle for hospitals to remain within budget to achieve adequate staffing.
     
    Practice Matters
    Protecting failing kidneys: What to teach your patients
    保护功能逐渐丧失的肾脏:向患者教育什么?
    Mary Kean* is a 62-year-old woman who has had hypertension for the last 30 years. She has not taken her medicine routinely because, as she tells her physician, it’s very expensive and she doesn’t feel sick. She also doesn’t adhere to a low-sodium diet. Ms. Kean tires easily and has some edema in her legs, but has no other medical problems.
    Autonomy and the patient’s right to choose falls prevention
    自主性及患者选择摔倒预防的权利
    You know from your experience that some patients will choose not to call for help before getting up from a bed, chair, or toilet, even though you orient them to the reason to call for help and how to use the call light to do so. When admitted to the hospital or long-term care facility, patients usually commit to calling for help before getting up; however, their actions may not be consistent with their promise. They make make the choice not to call for help or wait for a staff member for help. Does this scenario sound familiar?
     
    Inside ANA
    New, curated resource of RN workforce data: ANA Nurses by the Numbers
    RN工作场所资料的新设计源:2016版ANA Nurses by the Numbers
    The 2016 edition of ANA’s Nurses by the Numbers™ is the first of a new series from the American Nurses Association (ANA) that pulls together data from federal sources with respect to RNs and APRNs. As it happens, many of the services provided by RNs and APRNs remain uncounted, diminishing nurses’ visibility. Further, where current RN/APRN counts do exist, they are scattered across various websites, collected using a variety of definitions, and tabulated over different time frames. This volume is intended as an initial step in bringing contemporary economic information regarding nurses into a single site to make the information more easily accessible to RNs and APRNs.
     
    Career Sphere
    Moving up millennials to leadership roles
    进入千禧做领导
    Christina, a 29-year-old RN, BSN, recently obtained her MSN in clinical management. She has worked 3 years as a staff nurse and wants to move into a leadership position. Some managers, and even some of her colleagues, feel that because of her age, Christina isn’t ready for leadership roles.
    This scenario describes many millennial nurses in practice settings today—eager to move up the career ladder and pursuing the advanced education that’s needed to do so. But like Christina, they may encounter resistance on their way up.
     
    Mind/Body/Spirit
    Nurses with disabilities: Know their rights
    有障碍的护士:知道他们的权利
    Registered nurses (RNs) with physical disabilities experience discrimination in the workplace. Researchers have found that nurses with disabilities often leave the nursing profession because they feel discriminated against or they fear they will jeopardize patient safety. However, there are no documented incidents of patient injury related specifically to a nurse’s disability.
     
    Strictly Clinical
    Pain target: An innovative approach to pain management
    疼痛靶标:疼痛管理的创新性方法
    The prescription for type 2 diabetes: Encouraging exercise engagement
    Despite evidence-based guidelines for managing acute pain, multiple studies show that only about half of patients who experience moderate to severe pain obtain adequate relief. One of the most problematic areas is postoperative pain. Here we describe a pain target program that improved pain management on a women’s surgical unit. First, however, it’s important to understand the nature of surgical pain.
     
    Drugs and Devices
    FDA expands indication for continuous glucose monitoring system
    FDA扩大连续葡萄糖监测系统适用范围
    On Dec. 20, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) expanded the approved use of Dexcom’s G5 Mobile Continuous Glucose Monitoring System to allow for replacement of fingerstick blood glucose testing for diabetes treatment decisions in people 2 years of age and older with diabetes.
    FDA approves new treatment for advanced ovarian cancer
    FDA批准晚期卵巢癌新疗法
    On Dec. 19, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Rubraca (rucaparib) to treat women with advanced ovarian cancer who have been treated with two or more chemotherapies and whose tumors have the gene mutation deleterious BRCA as identified by an FDA-approved companion diagnostic test.
    FDA issues warning about anesthesia/sedation use in young children and pregnant women
    FDA发布儿童孕妇麻醉/镇静使用警示
    On Dec. 14, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) released a safety communication warning that repeated or lengthy use of general anesthetic and sedation drugs during surgeries or procedures in children younger than 3 years or in pregnant women during their third trimester may affect the development of children’s brains.
    FDA approves new treatment for eczema
    FDA批准湿疹新疗法
    On Dec. 14, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Eucrisa (crisaborole) ointment to treat mild to moderate eczema in patients 2 years of age and older.
    FDA approves drug to reduce CV deaths in patients with diabetes
    FDA批准用药降低糖尿病患者CV死亡
    On Dec. 2, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved a new indication for Jardiance (empagliflozin) to reduce the risk of cardiovascular (CV) death in adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease.
    FDA improves access to hearing aids
    FDA改善助听器获取率
    On Dec. 7, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a guidance document stating it does not intend to enforce the requirement that individuals 18 and up receive a medical evaluation or sign a waiver before purchasing most hearing aids and announced it will consider creating a category of over-the-counter (OTC) hearing aids.
    Effect of antihypertensives on hip and pelvic fracture risk
    抗高血压药对髋骨和骨盆骨折风险的影响
    Thiazide diuretics used to treat hypertension may be associated with lower risk of hip and pelvic fractures compared with lisinopril or amlodipine, according to a study in JAMA Internal Medicine.

    Take Note - Practice Updates
    In-bed cycling safe for ICU patients
    ICU患者使用床上单车安全
    In-bed cycling starting within the first 4 days of mechanical ventilation is safe and feasible for ICU patients who are hemodynamically stable, according to a study in PLOSOne.
    Indoor smoking bans reduce children’s asthma ED visits
    室内吸烟禁令减少儿童哮喘ED就诊率
    Emergency departments (EDs) in communities with indoor smoking bans report a 17% decrease in the number of children needing care for asthma attack, according to a study in Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology.
    Regular use of aspirin may reduce pancreatic cancer risk
    正常使用阿司匹林可降低胰腺癌风险
    Regular use of aspirin was associated with a lower risk of pancreatic cancer in people living in Shanghai, China.
    Body image and alcohol use in teen girls
    少女的体像与饮酒
    Adolescent girls with body image misperceptions are more likely to have had at least one drink in their life, and more likely to have engaged in episodes of heavy drinking, according to a study in Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs.
    Empowerment reduces first-line managers’ stress
    赋权减少一线管理员压力
    First-line nursing managers who have been structural empowerment experience less stress, according to a study inApplied Nursing Research.
    Family satisfaction with ICU care
    家人对ICU护理的满意度
    Emotional/interrelational aspects of care are integral to family member satisfaction with care provided in an intensive care unit (ICU), reports a study in Nursing Research.
    Few studies consider sex and gender when analyzing and reporting research results
    研究分析报告研究结果时很少考试性别和性
    The authors of a Viewpoint article in JAMA say that only a minority of medical studies take sex and gender into account when analyzing and reporting research results; the authors offer suggestions for improvements.
     
    Editorial
    The oxycodone epidemic: Up close and personal
    羟考酮流行病:更接近、更个人化
    Nurses are on the front line of caregiving, as well as abuse detection. But a harried day and heavy workload can cause us to miss subtle signs. For instance, those diverting drugs can be very smart and go unnoticed for a long time. I know. It happened right under my nose.
     




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