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    《ISPN学习》总第506期
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    《ISPN学习》总第574期
    日期:2020-01-14 20:34:21    
     
    《ISPN学习》2019年12月20日总第574期
     
    May I be strenuous, energetic, and persevering.
    愿我奋发向上、勤奋不懈、不屈不挠
     
     
     
    ISPN  Review  
     
    Body Defenses: Skin and Major Histocompatibility Complex
    身体防御:皮肤和主要组织相容性复合体
     
    The body’s defenses include barrier defenses, cellular defenses, the inflammatory response, and the immune response. Each of these defenses plays a major role in maintaining homeostasis and preventing disease.
     
    身体防御包括屏障防御、细胞防御、炎症应答和免疫应答。各防御系统在维护体内稳态和预防疾病中起着重要作用。
     
    Certain anatomical barriers exist to prevent the entry of foreign pathogens and to serve as important lines of defense in protecting the body. These barriers include the skin and mucous membranes, gastric acid, and the major histocompatibility complex.
     
    身体拥有特定的屏障,以防止外来病原体的进入,是保护身体的重要防线。这些屏障包括皮肤和粘膜、胃酸和一些重要的组织相容性复合物。
     
    Skin
    The skin is the first line of defense. The skin acts as a physical barrier to protect the internal tissues and organs of the body. Glands in the skin secrete chemicals that destroy or repel many pathogens. The top layer of the skin falls off daily, which makes it difficult for any pathogen to colonize on the skin. In addition, normal bacterial flora of the skin help to destroy many disease-causing pathogens.
     
    皮肤是躯体的第一道防线。皮肤作为物理屏障,保护身体内部组织和器官。皮肤腺分泌化学物质,破坏或击退很多病原体。皮肤最外层每天脱落,使任何病原体都难以在皮肤移居。而且,皮肤的正常菌落也帮助消灭很多致病病原体。
     
    Major Histocompatibility Complex 主要组织相容性复合体
     
    The body’s last barrier of defense is the ability to distinguish between self-cells and foreign cells. All of the cells and tissues of each person are marked for identification as part of that individual’s genetic code. No two people have exactly the same code. In humans, the genetic identification code is carried on a chromosome and is called the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). The MHC produces several proteins called histocompatibility antigens, or human leukocyte antigens (HLAs). These antigens (proteins) are located on the cell membrane and allow the body to recognize cells as being self-cells. Cells that do not have these proteins are identified as foreign and are targeted for destruction by the body.
     
    身体的最后一道防御屏障就是区别自身细胞和外来细胞的能力。各人的所有细胞和组织都带有个人身份识别标记,是个体基因密码的一部分。没有两个的密码是完全一样的。对于人类,基因识别码由A染色体携带,称为主要组织相容必复合物(MHC)。MHC产生多个称为组织相容性抗原或人白细胞抗原(HLAs)的蛋白质。这些抗原(蛋白质)位于细胞粘膜,使身体能够将细胞识别为自身细胞。没有这些蛋白质的细胞被确认为外来细胞,被身体视为需消灭细胞。
     
    Vocabulary for Today   
     
    body defenses -- 身体防御
    histocompatibility – n. 组织相容性
    barrier defenses –屏障防御
    cellular defenses –细胞防御
    inflammatory response –炎症应答
    immune response –免疫应答
    homeostasis – n. 内稳态
    pathogen – n. 病原体
    line of defense –防线
    physical barrier –物理屏障
    repel – v. 击退
    colonize – vi. 移居
    flora – n. 菌落
    self-cells –自身细胞
    foreign cells –外来细胞
    genetic code –基因密码
    identification code –识别码
    chromosome – n. 染色体
    MHC -- major histocompatibility complex主要组织相容必复合物
    antigen – n. 抗原
    HLA -- human leukocyte antigen人白细胞抗原
     
     
    尽快地从茫然中理清复习思路,准确地抓住复习重点,这是每一个考试复习者的一大愿望。“ISPN考试复习要点提示”即是帮您实现这一愿望的利器!该教程已在www.omedin.com陆续上线。
     
     
    Video  
     
    Immune Defense
     
     
    NCLEX-RN Experience
    考试从来不易,前行者的经验可以使后来者少走不少弯路!
     
    有的说自己记忆力不好,有的说自己年龄太大了…..看看这位考生,年龄似乎并不是什么问题。至少,就我所知,我们群里的考试都比她年轻得多。
     
    NCLEX Study Review. Old RN but still a goodie!
    by tamyo
     
    Hi all
    I am a foreign graduate (Australia) who graduated in 1990. [Yep...just turned 50] Sat NCLEX in 1993 when only offered twice a year (no stress?!?!?) and passed.
    As an oldie (but still a goodie!) feel like I need to take full course review. Initially tried Hurst when I thought I could take the test within 3-4 months which I loved, along with the Kaplan question program but after waiting and waiting and constant discouragement I stopped studying as I had no idea when I could retest.
    Tried to reconnect with Hurst re being able to 'subsidize' my initial investment at $50 a month. No response. Looked at other options...Blah, blah, found www.NRSNG.com which  I think provides a more basic and totally comprehensive and interactive experience for core course review if that is what you think you need. They provide 6 and 12 week + study review programs, which I have used generally as a guideline, but I am looking at EVERY single review as I wanted to start from the beginning and cover all that they have to offer - so will obviously take longer. I do prefer the short and integrative lectures and synopsis review for me. I feel Hurst primarily lectures, and maybe assumes more recent academic knowledge and practical background. Also NRSNG only $30/12. I think the question base/review with NRSNG for NCLEX prep is lacking but have also incorporated UWorld v's Kaplan as I think the rationales are more informative with uWorld which is working well for me in combination right now.
    Hope this helps someone? Will see what transpires on my end. If I do not pass it won’t be for lack of trying or commitment.
    Age will not define me, my worth or employability. My mum is 75 and still working per diem in the NICU and giving lectures as a NICU clinical consultant to medical and nursing staff on a monthly basis at one of the largest hospitals in Sydney - she is my primary motivation!
     
     
    Test  
     
    1. Amikacin (Amikin) is given to a client with E-coli infection. The nurse advises the client to report which of the following symptoms immediately?
    A. Muscle pain.
    B. Constipation.
    C. Fatigue.
    D. Hearing loss.
    2. A client went to the emergency room with complaints of abdominal pain, nausea, diarrhea and mucoid stools. Upon the interview of the nurse, the client stated that he is taking Cefixime (Suprax) for the treatment of urinary tract infection. The nurse determines that the client is most likely suffering from?
    A. Crohn’s disease.
    B. Acute Gastroenteritis.
    C. Acute appendicitis.
    D. Pseudomembranous colitis.
     
     
    奥医教育“在线自测”正式上线,复习练习、效果检验,奥医NCLEX-RN/ISPN题库一站完成。需要就来www.omedin.com
     
     
     
    答案
    Key to Questions 

     
    1. D. Hearing loss.
    Amikacin is an aminoglycoside. Side effects of this medication includes ototoxicity (Hearing loss), confusion, disorientation, gastrointestinal irritation, palpitations, blood pressure changes and nephrotoxicity.
    2. D. Pseudomembranous colitis.
    Pseudomembranous colitis also called antibiotic-associated colitis or C. difficile colitis, is the inflammation of the colon associated with an overgrowth of the bacterium Clostridium difficile. This overgrowth of C. difficile is most often related to recent antibiotic use such as ampicillin, clindamycin, fluoroquinolones, and cephalosporins.
     





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