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    ISPN词汇 小儿血液系统疾病
    ISPN词汇 小儿肌肉骨骼系统疾病
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    日期:2020-01-14 20:34:21    
    May I be strenuous, energetic, and persevering.
    ISPN  Review  
    Body Defenses: Skin and Major Histocompatibility Complex
    The body’s defenses include barrier defenses, cellular defenses, the inflammatory response, and the immune response. Each of these defenses plays a major role in maintaining homeostasis and preventing disease.
    Certain anatomical barriers exist to prevent the entry of foreign pathogens and to serve as important lines of defense in protecting the body. These barriers include the skin and mucous membranes, gastric acid, and the major histocompatibility complex.
    The skin is the first line of defense. The skin acts as a physical barrier to protect the internal tissues and organs of the body. Glands in the skin secrete chemicals that destroy or repel many pathogens. The top layer of the skin falls off daily, which makes it difficult for any pathogen to colonize on the skin. In addition, normal bacterial flora of the skin help to destroy many disease-causing pathogens.
    Major Histocompatibility Complex 主要组织相容性复合体
    The body’s last barrier of defense is the ability to distinguish between self-cells and foreign cells. All of the cells and tissues of each person are marked for identification as part of that individual’s genetic code. No two people have exactly the same code. In humans, the genetic identification code is carried on a chromosome and is called the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). The MHC produces several proteins called histocompatibility antigens, or human leukocyte antigens (HLAs). These antigens (proteins) are located on the cell membrane and allow the body to recognize cells as being self-cells. Cells that do not have these proteins are identified as foreign and are targeted for destruction by the body.
    Vocabulary for Today   
    body defenses -- 身体防御
    histocompatibility – n. 组织相容性
    barrier defenses –屏障防御
    cellular defenses –细胞防御
    inflammatory response –炎症应答
    immune response –免疫应答
    homeostasis – n. 内稳态
    pathogen – n. 病原体
    line of defense –防线
    physical barrier –物理屏障
    repel – v. 击退
    colonize – vi. 移居
    flora – n. 菌落
    self-cells –自身细胞
    foreign cells –外来细胞
    genetic code –基因密码
    identification code –识别码
    chromosome – n. 染色体
    MHC -- major histocompatibility complex主要组织相容必复合物
    antigen – n. 抗原
    HLA -- human leukocyte antigen人白细胞抗原
    Immune Defense
    NCLEX-RN Experience
    NCLEX Study Review. Old RN but still a goodie!
    by tamyo
    Hi all
    I am a foreign graduate (Australia) who graduated in 1990. [Yep...just turned 50] Sat NCLEX in 1993 when only offered twice a year (no stress?!?!?) and passed.
    As an oldie (but still a goodie!) feel like I need to take full course review. Initially tried Hurst when I thought I could take the test within 3-4 months which I loved, along with the Kaplan question program but after waiting and waiting and constant discouragement I stopped studying as I had no idea when I could retest.
    Tried to reconnect with Hurst re being able to 'subsidize' my initial investment at $50 a month. No response. Looked at other options...Blah, blah, found which  I think provides a more basic and totally comprehensive and interactive experience for core course review if that is what you think you need. They provide 6 and 12 week + study review programs, which I have used generally as a guideline, but I am looking at EVERY single review as I wanted to start from the beginning and cover all that they have to offer - so will obviously take longer. I do prefer the short and integrative lectures and synopsis review for me. I feel Hurst primarily lectures, and maybe assumes more recent academic knowledge and practical background. Also NRSNG only $30/12. I think the question base/review with NRSNG for NCLEX prep is lacking but have also incorporated UWorld v's Kaplan as I think the rationales are more informative with uWorld which is working well for me in combination right now.
    Hope this helps someone? Will see what transpires on my end. If I do not pass it won’t be for lack of trying or commitment.
    Age will not define me, my worth or employability. My mum is 75 and still working per diem in the NICU and giving lectures as a NICU clinical consultant to medical and nursing staff on a monthly basis at one of the largest hospitals in Sydney - she is my primary motivation!
    1. Amikacin (Amikin) is given to a client with E-coli infection. The nurse advises the client to report which of the following symptoms immediately?
    A. Muscle pain.
    B. Constipation.
    C. Fatigue.
    D. Hearing loss.
    2. A client went to the emergency room with complaints of abdominal pain, nausea, diarrhea and mucoid stools. Upon the interview of the nurse, the client stated that he is taking Cefixime (Suprax) for the treatment of urinary tract infection. The nurse determines that the client is most likely suffering from?
    A. Crohn’s disease.
    B. Acute Gastroenteritis.
    C. Acute appendicitis.
    D. Pseudomembranous colitis.
    Key to Questions 

    1. D. Hearing loss.
    Amikacin is an aminoglycoside. Side effects of this medication includes ototoxicity (Hearing loss), confusion, disorientation, gastrointestinal irritation, palpitations, blood pressure changes and nephrotoxicity.
    2. D. Pseudomembranous colitis.
    Pseudomembranous colitis also called antibiotic-associated colitis or C. difficile colitis, is the inflammation of the colon associated with an overgrowth of the bacterium Clostridium difficile. This overgrowth of C. difficile is most often related to recent antibiotic use such as ampicillin, clindamycin, fluoroquinolones, and cephalosporins.